Internet of Things, or simply IoT, is a network of physical objects, vehicles, buildings and others that have embedded technology, sensors, and a network connection capable of collecting and transmitting data. The Internet of Things has emerged from advances in various areas such as embedded systems, microelectronics, communications and consolidation. In fact, IoT has received a lot of attention both from academia and industry because of its potential for use in a wide range of human activities.
The concept is the result of work developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Auto-ID Laboratory, using the use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Networks. The goal was, from the outset, to create a global asset registration system using a unique numbering system called Electronic Product Code. The Internet of Things (IoT) is a term created in September 1999 by Kevin Ashton, a British technology pioneer who devised a ubiquitous sensor system connecting the physical world to the Internet while working on RFID. Although the Internet, things and connectivity between them are the three main components of the Internet, the added value lies in bridging the gaps between the physical and digital worlds in systems.
The Internet of Things, in a nutshell, is nothing more than an extension of the current Internet, which provides day-to-day (whatever) objects, but with computing and communication capabilities, to connect to the Internet. The connection to the world wide web will enable first to remotely control the objects and, secondly, to allow the objects themselves to be accessed as service providers. These new skills, of the common objects, generate a great number of opportunities in the academic as in the industrial scope. However, these possibilities present risks and pose wide technical and social challenges. In IoT, the objects are identified and such identification can be read by automated means. From there the physical objects have a representation in the virtual environment. The fundamental concepts associated with IoT are:
- AIDC (Automatic Identification and Data Capture);
- Context Perception;
- Internet access.
A detailed exploration of the concepts presented above allows to elaborate a quite complete model of the technologies necessary for the development and implementation of IoT applications and services. In this sense there is a great interest due to the potential that this concept can be applied in the construction of new business models applied to our market. It is carrying a technological revolution that represents the future of computing and communication, whose development depends on the technical innovation of wireless sensors and nanotechnology. Advances related to miniaturization and nanotechnology mean that small objects will have the ability to interact and connect. Our country is increasingly awakened to issues related to the evolution of science and technology with emphasis on initiatives in the field of nanotechnology.
The benefits of this integrated information between industrial products and everyday objects are possible from sensors that detect physical changes around them. These changes transform static objects into dynamics, combining intelligence with the medium and stimulating the creation of innovative products and new services. RFID technology is one of the most promising in this regard. The increased interaction and interface with the physical world resulting from the development and use of the Internet of Things raises questions about social impact, safety and economic factors with a focus on issues related to the privacy and security of information contained in objects connected by RFID, smart cards, smartphones, tablets, etc. The combination of these developments will create an Internet of Things that connects the objects of the world in a sensory and intelligent way.
The main challenges are related to infrastructure, security, applications and services, particularly in relation to autonomous systems communications, where current internet resources are inadequate. However, the consideration of the technological dimension alone is not enough to understand the universe of IoT and build realistic roadmaps that adequately direct investment and R & D efforts so that society can take advantage of the benefits provided by IoT as soon as possible.
Some of these aspects may present real challenges such as:
- Applications and services;
- Networks and Infrastructure;
- Human Interfaces and Behavior;
- Restrictive rules;
- Safety and security;
- Business models;
- Platforms and open standards;
- Sustainability (ecological or financial);
- Environment or eco system.
In the Brazilian market, these systems are being used in several projects, mainly through the application with RFID technology. The main market segments that are using RFID technology in Brazil, with their respective focuses of solutions are:
- Industry 4.0 with focus on productivity solutions;
- Logistics with a focus on traceability and urban mobility solutions;
- Services focused on quality solutions in providing services to customers;
- Entertainment focused on innovation solutions and integrated consumer experiences;
- Consumer goods present the most traditional solutions with the use of technology in the supply chain;
- There are outstanding initiatives in the areas of health, education and safety, in which the combination with other technologies constitutes special projects of high added value.